Material of Dactylorhiza were sampled from 49 localities in Turkey and investigated for allozyme variation at ten loci (nine enzyme systems). Among diploids, the Anatolian D. osmanica and D. umbrosa were allozymically variable, but not distinct from each other or from D. incarnata. Dactylorhiza saccifera contained the same alleles as the European D. fuchsii. Dactylorhiza iberica and D. euxina were distinct from each other and the other diploids. On basis of allozyme patterns three distinct allotetraploid genotypes were distinguished, and each of them could be treated as a separate species. Dactylorhiza nieschalkiorum is similar to European allotetraploids, and may have arisen from hybridization between D. incarnata s.l. and D. saccifera. Dactylorhiza urvilleana may have arisen from parents related to present-day D. saccifera and D. euxina, but it also contains additional alleles that have not been found in any of the diploids investigated. A third allotetraploid known from four populations in the Ardahan and Kars provinces of north-eastern Turkey combines the allozyme patterns found in material of D. incarnata s.l. from the same area with those from D. euxina. It is here described for the first time as D. armeniaca.