A tall allotetraploid member of the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata complex with unspotted leaves and large pinkish flowers from the island of Gotland in the Baltic was examined for molecular variation patterns at five nuclear microsatellite loci, nuclear ITS and in plastid haplotypes. The allotetraploid was well separated from allopatric allotetraploids of similar appearance, including the western European D. majalis ssp. integrata (syn. D. praetermissa) and forms of D. majalis ssp. lapponica from mainland Sweden. It also differed from other allotetraploids distributed in the Baltic Sea region, including D. majalis ssp. baltica and D. majalis ssp. lapponica. It is here recognized as D. majalis ssp. elatior (Fr.) Hedren & H. A. Pedersen. Dactylorhiza osiliensis Pikner, described from Saaremaa (Estonia) is regarded as a synonym. The distribution covers Gotland, Saaremaa and possibly Hiiumaa. Dactylorhiza majalis ssp. elatior may have one or several recent origins within its present distribution area, and it contains no other molecular markers than those found in the parental D. incarnata var. incarnata and D. maculata ssp. fuchsii in the same area. It appears to have weak barriers towards secondary hybridization with its parental lineages. The situation is reminiscent to that of other young allotetraploids in the D. majalis s.l. complex, suggesting that introgression may be an underestimated process explaining the accumulation of genetic diversity in evolving allopolyploid plants.