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Systematics and phylogeography of the Dactylorhiza maculata complex (Orchidaceae) in Scandinavia: insights from cytological, morphological and molecular data

  • David Ståhlberg
  • Mikael Hedrén
Publiceringsår: 2008
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 107-132
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: Plant Systematics and Evolution
Volym: 273
Nummer: 1-2
Dokumenttyp: Artikel i tidskrift
Förlag: Springer

Abstract english

Flow cytometry, morphometry and molecular markers [plastid DNA and internal transcribed spacers(ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA] were used to determine taxonomic and phylogeographic patterns in Dactylorhiza maculata s.l. from Scandinavia. A total of 238 individuals from 27 populations from throughout all of Scandinavia, including the adjacent Kola Peninsula of Russia, were analyzed. Diploid D. maculata ssp. fuchsii and autotetraploid D. maculata ssp. maculata are morphologically differentiated. Fragment size variants from 10 plastid DNA loci (seven microsatellite loci and three loci with indel variation) were combined to give 43 haplotypes. Three major groups of haplotypes were found. Group I haplotypes were prevalent in the north and the northeast, whereas Group II haplotypes were prevalent in the south and the southwest. Group III was represented by only a single haplotype and appeared to be the result of introgression from D. incarnata s.l. Group I and Group II

haplotypes did not correspond with cytologically and

morphologically defined D. maculata ssp. fuchsii or

D. maculata ssp. maculata. Past introgressive gene flow

rather than recent hybridization is envisaged. Intermediate

Group I haplotypes between Group II and the rest of Group

I were detected in a zone of contact in central Sweden,

which may suggest plastid DNA recombination. The six

ITS alleles scored showed strong positive correlation with

taxonomy. All data sets obtained for ssp. maculata were

significantly correlated with geography. Three different

autotetraploid lineages are hypothesized. One lineage may

represent postglacial immigration from the south and the

other two lineages may represent eastern immigration

routes. Morphology and ITS data suggested that subarctic

populations of ssp. maculata should be recognized as var.



  • Ecology
  • Introgression
  • Flow cytometry
  • Dactylorhiza
  • Polyploidy
  • Plastid DNA
  • Morphometry
  • ITS


  • ISSN: 1615-6110
Mikael Hedrén
E-post: mikael [dot] hedren [at] biol [dot] lu [dot] se



+46 46 222 88 94

+46 70 519 76 24





+46 46 222 88 94

+46 70 519 76 24


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